# Roots, Multiplicities, and to_poly_solve

A few days ago I posted some code to factor and perform partial fraction decomposition using all available complex roots.  The approach is to find roots $a$ — taking note of the multiplicity $m$ of each —  and then construct factors of the form $(z-a)^m$.

As I’ve noted before, the built-in command solve can fail to find solutions.  The more robust Maxima solver is to_poly_solve.    That said, after a call to to_poly_solve, I don’t know how to get my hands on the multiplicities.  So, I’ve written a little utility to compute and return a list of multiplicities for the roots returned by to_poly_solve.  Here’s an example, followed by the code.  Notice that because to_poly_solve returns solutions using the %union construction, extracting the $j$th root requires something like root:rhs(part(s,j,1))

```/* tpsmult1 assumes results of to_poly_solve applied to _f,
are passed in the argument s */
tpsmult1(_f,_z,s):=block(
[d,root,nroots,mult,m1],
nroots:length(s),
mult:[],
for j:1 thru nroots do (
root:rhs(part(s,j,1)),
m1:rootmult(_f,_z,root),
mult: endcons(m1,mult)
),
mult
);

/* find the multiplicity of a root _a for the polynomial _f */
rootmult(_f,_z,_a):=block(
[d,val,m,mm],
m:1,
d:divide(_f,(_z-_a)),
val:subst(_z=_a,part(d,1)),
if (val=0) then (
mm:rootmult(part(d,1),_z,_a),
m:m+mm
),
m
);```